Kidney Failure


The symptoms include abnormally dark or light skin, bone pain, drowsiness or problems concentrating or thinking, numbness or swelling in the hands and feet, muscle twitching or cramps, breath odor, easy bruising, or blood in the stool, changes in mental status or mood, Menstrual periods stop), high blood pressure, sleep problems and urination changes(i.e., Little or no urine)

Tests to diagnose: 

Urine test (Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)), blood test, kidney biopsy and imaging test are the tests done to diagnose renal failure. To diagnose any blockage in the urinary tract X-ray, computerised tomography (CT) scan, or Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen can also be asked.



The treatment depends on the cause for renal failure. Controlling blood pressure will slow further kidney damage. It also includes dialysis to remove toxins from the blood. Medicines called phosphate binders, to help prevent high phosphorous level, extra iron in the diet, iron pills, iron given through a vein (intravenous iron), special shots of a medicine called erythropoietin, and blood transfusions to treat anemia, extra calcium and vitamin D could help treat renal failure.

For details on drugs visit

For more information visit the following websites