Group 2 - the periodic table By – Sameer Sharma Abhishek Bansal Nikhil Kumar Abhay Rana Achhar Singh 2. Groups 1-2 (except hydrogen) and 13-18 are termed main group elements. Strontium metal is a slightly softer than calcium and has a melting point of 1042 K. In it's pure form, Strontium is used in alloys. In the old IUPAC system the letters A and B were designated to the left (A) and right (B) part of the table, while in the CAS system the letters A and B are designated to main group elements (A) and transition elements (B). Most elements are metals. Group. Which Group 2 element has a scarlet flame color? Magnesium is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table: all group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure. It is very rare on Earth as well as in the universe and is not considered important for plant or animal life. A section of the periodic table showing metals and non-metals The main groups are numbered from 1 to 7 going from left to right, and the last group on the right is group 0. In nature, it can only be found in compounds with other elements. The group number is an identifier used to describe the column of the standard periodic table in which the element appears. Curriculum links: Periodic Table, Periodicity, group 2 elements, trends in group 2. Which Group 2 element is the most radioactive? The four stable isotopes of calcium are $$\ce{^{40}Ca}$$, $$\ce{^{42}Ca}$$, $$\ce{^{43}Ca}$$, $$\ce{^{44}Ca}$$. Groups 3-11 are termed transition elements. Chemistry: Group 2 in the Periodic Table (no rating) 0 customer reviews. The Periodic Table; Trends in Group 2 Compounds; Title . The most important compound of radium is radium chloride ($$RaCl_2$$). [ "article:topic", "barium", "Magnesium", "strontium", "calcium", "Beryllium", "Radium", "showtoc:no", "Group 2" ], https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FInorganic_Chemistry%2FModules_and_Websites_(Inorganic_Chemistry)%2FDescriptive_Chemistry%2FElements_Organized_by_Block%2F1_s-Block_Elements%2FGroup__2_Elements%253A_The_Alkaline_Earth_Metals%2F1Group_2%253A_Chemical_Reactions_of_Alkali_Earth_Metals%2FGroup_2%253A_General_Properties, Atomic Number = 4 Mass = 9.012 g mol, Atomic Number = 12 Mass = 24.31 g mol, Atomic Number = 20 Mass = 40.08 g mol, Atomic Number = 38 Mass = 87.62 g mol, Atomic Number = 88 Mass = 226.0 g mol, Properties of Individual Alkaline Earth Metals, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Created: Aug 18, 2015 | Updated: Jun 29, 2017. Groups are numbered from 1 to 18. 1.6 The Periodic Table (h) trend in general reactivity of Group 1 and Group 2 metals; Northern Ireland. Calcium was isolated in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy by the electrolysis of lime and mercuric oxide. Which group 2 metal has the largest ionization energy? Trends in Group 2 Compounds . Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. In 1898, Paul Lebeau was able to produce the first pure samples of Beryllium by electrolyzing molten beryllium fluoride and sodium fluoride. Abhay Rana Alternative names for Group 2 are: Reactions with water . . The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table. An element X belongs to 3rd period and group 2 of the periodic table. This procedure was repeated several times until the radioactivity of the precipitate no longer increased, as radium chloride could be electrolyzed using a mercury cathode to produce pure radium. Atomic Number Group 2 Elements in Periodic Table. It is also highly flammable and extremely difficult to extinguish once ignited. The Mg2+ ion is extremely common in seawater and can be filtered and then electrolyzed to produce pure magnesium. Atomic and physical properties . As beryllium is almost transparent to x-rays, it can be used in windows for x-ray tubes. Beryllium is a monoisotopic element—it has only one stable isotope, 9Be. Boiling points Which of the following is NOT an alkaline earth metal? Calcium, in the presence of Vitamin D, is well known for its role in building stronger, denser bones early in the lives of humans and other animals. . Magnesium was first discovered in 1808 by Sir Humphry Davy in England by the electrolysis of magnesia and mercury oxide. Groups 1, 2, and 13–18 are the main group elements, listed as A in older tables. The old IUPAC system was frequently used in Europe, while the CAS is most common in America. In its elemental form, magnesium is used for structural purposes in car engines, pencil sharpeners, and many electronic devices such as laptops and cell phones. Calcium can be found in leafy green vegetables as well as in milk, cheese, and other dairy products. Maguire, Michael E. "Alkaline Earth Metals.". Low melting points in comparison with other metals. Abhishek Bansal Therefore, it is located in group 1. In nature, it is only found in combination with other elements as it is extremely reactive. CaCO3(s) → CaO(s) + CO2(g) (calcination), CaO(s) + H2O(l) → Ca(OH)2(s) (slaking), Ca(OH)2 + CO2(g) → CaCO3(s) + H2O(l) (carbonation). Periodic table, in chemistry, the organized array of all the chemical elements in order of increasing atomic number. They are beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra). Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Reactions with oxygen . They are called s-block elements because their highest energy electrons appear in the s subshell. The periodic table is a way of arranging the elements so patterns in their properties and reactions can be identified and explained. It is also the main component of limestone. Low density - can float on water. Have questions or comments? Please be aware that resources have been published on the website in the form that they were originally supplied. All known radium compounds have a crimson colored flame. Petrucci, Ralph H, William Harwood, and F. Herring. Because beryllium is relatively light and has a wide temperature range, it has many mechanical uses. Author: Created by greenAPL. The minimal absorption by Beryllium greatly reduces heating effects due to intense radiation. Radium is radioactive and is not considered in this section. The three most abundant: 223Ra, 224Ra and 226Ra decay by emitting alpha particles, whereas 228Ra decays emitting a beta particle. Calcium (Ca) is in group 2, for it contains two valence electrons. You'll find more specific groups, like transition metals, rare earths , alkali metals, alkaline earth, halogens, and noble gasses. Most radium isotopes have relatively short half-lives. Calcium has a melting point of 1115 K and gives off a red flame when ignited. The formation of calcium hydroxide is given below: $CaO_{(s)}+H_2O_{(l)} \rightarrow Ca(OH)_2$. There are a total of 18 groups. Calcium was not readily available until the early 20th Century. Magnesium can be obtained by eating foods rich in magnesium, such as nuts and certain vegetables, or by eating supplementary diet pills. Groups 1-2 termed s-block elements. Groups 3–12 are in the middle of the periodic table and are the transition elements, listed as B in older tables. The Group 2 elements are: Beryllium; Magnesium; Calcium; Strontium; Barium; Radium; The electronic configuration of the elements consist of two s-electrons outside an inner core of electron corresponding to the previous inert gas: the group configuration is therefore ns 2. Learn the basics about Alkaline Earth metals which are a group of chemical elements in the periodic table with very similar properties? Notice an increase down the group in atomic number, mass, and atomic radius, and a decrease down the group for ionization energy. True or False: Alkaline earth metals do not react vigorously with water. Visualize trends, 3D orbitals, isotopes, and mix compounds. One of the most important applications of beryllium is the production of radiation windows. An element X in group 2 has a valency of 2. Radium was first discovered in 1898 by Marie Sklodowska-Curie, and her husband, Pierre Curie, in a pitchblende uranium ore in North Bohemia in the Czech Republic; however, it was not isolated as a pure metal until 1902. This beryllium is not commercially available as it cannot be economically mass produced. Unit AS 2: Further Physical and inorganic Chemistry and an Introdution to Organic Chemistry. These outer electrons are called valence electrons. Discusses trends in atomic radius, ionisation energy, electronegativity and melting point of the Group 2 elements. An element X is in group 2 of the periodic table. 2.11 Group II elements and their compounds Radium appears pure white but when exposed to air it immediately oxidizes and turns black. These common periodic trends are consistent across the whole periodic table. Click the tabs at the top to explore each section. PERIODIC TABLE GROUP 2 MENU . Legal. Which substance is acts as the reducing agent in the reaction below? $$\ce{^{41}Ca}$$ is the only radioactive isotope of calcium with a half life of 103,000 years. (a) Ba (b) K (c) Mg (d) Be (e) Ra. The Group 2 elements are called the alkaline earth metals. Radium compounds are extremely rare in nature because of its short half-life and intense radioactivity. Show health and safety information. 28Mg is the only known radioactive isotope of Magnesium and it has a half-life of around 21 hours. Group 2: General Properties. For example, all of the elements in Group 2, shown left, have two outer electrons. A period 2 element is an element in the second period (row) of the periodic table. The name "Alkaline" is from its slight solubility to water, while "Earth" is derived from its inability to decompose when exposed to heat. asked Aug 19, 2019 in Class X Science by priya12 (-12,630 points) periodic classification of elements. When the elements are thus arranged, there is a recurring pattern called the ‘periodic law’ in their properties, in which elements in the same column (group) have similar properties. 1. Strontium has four stable isotopes: 84Sr, 86Sr, 87Sr, and 88Sr. GROUPING METHOD. The most abundant isotope, 40Ca, composes about 97% of naturally occurring calcium. This short article about chemistry can be made longer. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. This isotope has a relatively long half-life of 1.51 million years, and is useful in examining soil erosion and formation, as well as the age of ice cores. Calcium is an important component in cement and mortars, and thus is necessary for construction. About 82% of naturally occurring strontium comes in the form of 88Sr. . The famous Spitzer Space Telescope's optics are composed entirely of beryllium. Back to Elements List. Therefore, the valency of chlorine Cl is 1, that is, (8 - 7). . In a biological sense, magnesium is vital to the body's health: the Mg2+ ion is a component of every cell type. All the elements in Group 2 have two electrons in their valence shells, giving them an oxidation state of +2. The four most stable isotopes are 223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra. If the atomic numbers of magnesium and oxygen are 12 and 8 respectively, draw their electronic configurations and show the process of … Calcium carbonate is a component of shells in living organisms, and is used as a commercial antacid. Beryllium forms compounds with most non-metals. Why is the term alkaline used to describe the Group 2 elements? 1. There are 25 isotopes of radium are that known to exist, but only 4 are found in nature. We know that chlorine has 7 valence electrons. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. IntroductIon - Group 2 contains soft, silver metals that are less metallic in character than the Group 1 elements. Cation: $$H_2O_{(l)} + BeO_{(s)} + 2H_3O^+_{(aq)} \rightarrow [Be(H_2O)_4]^{2+}_{(aq)}$$, Anion: $$H_2O_{(l)} + BeO_{(s)} + 2OH^-_{(aq)} \rightarrow [Be(OH)_4]^{2-}_{(aq)}$$. Magnesium has a melting point of 923 K and reacts with water at room temperature, although extremely slowly. Magnesium ions are essential for all life on Earth, and can be found mainly in seawater and the mineral carnallite. The elements have very similar properties: they are all shiny, silvery-white, somewhat reactive metals at standard temperature and pressure. The vertical columns in the periodic table of the elements are known as groups. A/AS level. Because radium is a decay product of uranium, it can be found in trace amounts in all uranium ores. The element was originally named glucinum, and it was first isolated in 1828 by Antoine Bussy and Friedrich Wohler. 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