The symptoms include:

  • Anxiety
  • Sweating
  • Increased heart rate (tachycardia)
  • Increased rate of breathing (tachypnoea)
  • Avoidance of public or social situations
  • Irrational fear or hatred of foreigners or strange things
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Shortness of breath
  • Nausea
  • Dry mouth
  • Trembling
Tests to diagnose: 

Physical examination can be done for diagnoses.


Like many phobias, treatment for the disorder is usually best left to a mental health practitioner