If pneumonia develops, symptoms commonly include:

  • High fever
  • Chills
  • Shortness of breath
  • Increased breathing rate
  • A worsening cough that may produce discoloured or bloody sputum (phlegm)
  • Sharp chest pains – caused by inflammation of the membrane that lines the lungs.
  • Malaise (not feeling well)
  • White nail syndrome, or leukonychia
Tests to diagnose: 

the tests include physical examination, chest x-ray, CBC blood test to check white blood cell count, sputum tests to look for the organism, pleural fluid culture if there is fluid in the space surrounding the lungs, bronchoscopy - a procedure used to look into the lungs' airways, chest computed tomography (CT scan) and pulse oximetry test measuring the level of oxygen blood saturation by attaching a small sensor to your finger.


Pneumonia is usually treated with antibiotics and pain relieving medications. Other treatments include antibiotics given intravenously (via a drip into a vein), oxygen therapy - to ensure the body gets the oxygen it needs,intravenous fluids - to correct dehydration or if the person is too unwell to eat or drink and physiotherapy - to help clear the sputum from the lungs.

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