The symptoms include:

External fistulas cause discharge through the skin. They are accompanied by other symptoms, including:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Painful bowel obstruction
  • Fever
  • Elevated white blood cell count

With internal fistulas, patients may also experience the following symptoms:

  • Diarrhea
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Bloodstream infection, or sepsis
  • Poor absorption of nutrients and weight loss
  • Dehydration
  • Worsening of the underlying disease
Tests to diagnose: 

The tests include:

  • Physical Examination
  • Rectal Examination
  • Proctoscopy
  • Anal endosonography (ultrasound)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans
  • Computerised tomography (CT) scan

Several treatment options are available, including:

  • Hormones to reduce gastric fluid production
  • Lots of nutritional supplements
  • Surgery to close the fistula
  • Fistulotomy : A fistulotomy is the most commonly used type of anal fistula surgery, used in 85-95% of cases
  • Seton techniques: A seton is a piece of surgical thread that is left in the fistula tract to keep the tract open, often for several months. This allows it to drain properly before it heals.
  • Advancement flap procedures: Advancement flap procedures may be considered if your fistula is complex or there is a high risk of incontinence.
  • Bioprosthetic plug: A bioprosthetic plug is a cone-shaped plug made from animal tissue. It can be used to block the internal opening of the fistula.
  • Fibrin glue: Fibrin glue is currently the only non-surgical option for treating an anal fistula.

For more information visit the following websites