Possible seizure-related symptoms include:

  • Sudden falls.
  • Involuntary jerky movements of limbs whilst awake.
  • Blank spells.
  • Unexplained incontinence of urine with loss of awareness, or in sleep.
  • Odd events occurring in sleep, eg fall from bed, jerky movements, automatisms.
  • Episodes of confused behaviour with impaired awareness.
  • Possible simple partial seizures.
  • Epigastric fullness sensation.
  • Déjà vu.
  • Premonition.
  • Fear.
  • Elation, depression.
  • Depersonalisation, derealisation.
  • Inability to understand or express language (written or spoken).
  • Loss of memory, disorientation.
  • Olfactory, gustatory, visual, auditory hallucinations.
  • Focal motor or somatosensory deficit, or positive symptoms (jerking, tingling).
Tests to diagnose: 
  • The doctor will perform a physical exam, which will include a detailed look at the brain and nervous system.
  • An EEG (electroencephalogram) will be done to check the electrical activity in the brain
  • Blood test: Complete blood count (CBC)
  • Lumbar puncture
  • Toxicology screening
  • Imaging tests: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) 

Treatment for epilepsy may involve surgery or medication. Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are usually the first choice of treatment. The older first-line AEDs include sodium valproate,carbamazepine, phenytoin and phenobarbital. Newer AEDs include gabapentin, lamotrigine,levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, tiagabine, topamax andvigabatrin. Epilepsy that does not get better after two or three anti-seizure drugs have been tried is called "medically refractory epilepsy." Surgery to place a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) may be recommended.- Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy.

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