The main symptom is severe pain that starts suddenly and may go away suddenly. Pain may be felt in the belly area or side of the back, pain may move to groin area (groin pain) or testicles (testicle pain).
Other symptoms can include:
- Abnormal urine color
- Blood in the urine
The tests include non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (NCCT), Ultrasonography, urine tests to check for infections and pieces of stones, an examination of any stones that you pass in your urine and blood tests to check that your kidneys are working properly, and to also check the levels of substances that could cause kidney stones, such as calcium.
The treatment procedures include:
- Lithotripsy is used to remove stones slightly smaller than a half an inch that are located in the kidney or ureter.
- Endoscopy: The stone is removed with a tube (endoscope).
- Ureteroscopy may be used for stones in the lower urinary tract
- Nephrolithotomy : Open Surgery may be needed if other methods do not work or are not possible.
For some types of stones, your doctor may prescribe medicine to prevent stones from forming or help break down and remove the material that is causing the stone. These medicines can include:
- Allopurinol (for uric acid stones)
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
- Antibiotics (for struvite stones)
- Alpha-adrenergic blockers (such astamsulosin)
- Phosphate solutions
- Sodium bicarbonate or sodium citrate
- Water pills (thiazide diuretics)
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