Rift Valley fever (RVF)


Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute, fever-causing viral disease most commonly observed among domesticated animals like cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats and camels. However they do possess the ability to infect and cause illness even in humans. The disease is caused by RVF virus (RVFV). If not treated properly and on time, it could be dangerous. it is usually caused by the bites of infected mosquitoes. Some people may even get infected RVFV through contact : 1) with blood 2)body fluids 3)tissues of RVFV-infected animals.

Symptoms may vary from mild to severe.

  • Fever, weakness, back ache and dizziness at the onset of the illness


  • Ocular disease -  Lesions on the eyes , blurred/decreased vision.
  • Encephalitis -  Inflammation of the brain,which may lead to headaches, coma, seizures or neurological deficits.
  • Hemorrhagic fever - Jaundice and some other signs of liver impairment, vomiting blood, blood in stool, bleeding from gums, skin, nose and injection sites.
Tests to diagnose: 


  • By isolation of virus from cell culture
  • Antigen-detection by ELISA
  • Molecular techniques (PCR)
  • Antibody testing using (ELISA) can be used to confirm presence of IgM and IgG antibodies.Both IgM and IgG antibodies are specific to RVF virus.
  • Treatment depends on the severity of the symptoms.
  • Mild symptoms : No treatment is required.
  • Severe symptoms : An inactivated vaccine as adviced by the health care provider.