The most common symptoms of lupus are:

  • Extreme fatigue (tiredness)
  • Headaches
  • Painful or swollen joints
  • Fever
  • Anemia (low numbers of red blood cells or hemoglobin, or low total blood volume)
  • Swelling (edema) in feet, legs, hands, and/or around eyes
  • Pain in chest on deep breathing (pleurisy)
  • Butterfly-shaped rash across cheeks and nose
  • Sun- or light-sensitivity (photosensitivity)
  • Hair loss
  • Abnormal blood clotting
  • Fingers turning white and/or blue when cold (Raynaud’s phenomenon)
  • Mouth or nose ulcers
Tests to diagnose: 

The tests include:

  • Laboratory test: Blood and urine tests
  • Imaging tests : Chest X-ray, Echocardiogram
  • Biopsy



The medications most commonly used to control lupus include:

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
  • Antimalarial drugs
  • Immune suppressants
  • Hydroxychloroquine
  • Rituximab
  • Belimumab

For more information visit the following websites